A miracle is a marvellous event caused by a supernatural agency, Almighty Allah Ta'ala. The Holy Qur'an uses words (Aayat,Burhan,etc.) which mean 'sign','argument',etc., instead of the word 'Mu'jizah' (miracle). These words are really more to the point.Miracles (signs) have played an integral part in the lives of the prophets. Spirtual forces have always been the main weapon in their hands. They never based their teachings on any material splendour.
Allah, the Almighty has bestowed miracles to the prophets as signs ("Aayat") of their prophethood.
The miracles of Dawood(A.S.), Sulemaan(A.S.),IbraheemA.S.), Moosa(A.S) and Isaa(A.S.)are very famous. These miracles are also mentioned in the Holy Qur'an along with other miracles.
Miracles were needed for those prophets who met the greatest opposition, while those who were ordained only to refresh people's memories about what had been brought by earlier prophets did not need the help of their own miracles.
Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu alaiyhi wassallam), being the Last Messenger of Allah for the whole of mankind, was given miracles which were aimed at all mankind.
As a matter of fact the number of miracles performed by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu alaiyhi wassallam) far exceeds those performed by any other prophet.
'The light of his face, the miraculous effect of his words and the compelling force of his morality, all these were of the nature of miracles and had their due effect, and aided him in attaining the goal set for him, that of propagating Islam successfully. His behaviour and habits were themselves miraculous. The Book entrusted to him, his own spiritual powers, Mi'raaj, etc., were all miraculous.
1.) THE QUR'AN AS A MIRACLE:
The Holy Qur'an is the greatest miracle of Allah, the Almighty.He throws a challenge to all the disbelievers of all times by asking them to produce a surah like it if they are truthful.
"And if you are in doubt concerning tha. We have sent down to Our servant, then produce a Sura like it and call on your helpers as against Allah if you are truthful."(Q. 2:23)
T'his is a challenge that the whole human race would not be able to produce a verse like that as one finds in the Holy Qur'an.And in case they fail to accept this challenge, and most certainly they would not be able to do it, they would have to face the fire whose fuel is human beings and stones. The Holy Qur'an says:"And if you can not do it - and most certainly you would not be able to do it - then guard against the fire whose fuel is human beings and stones; it is prepared for the disbelievers."(Q. 2:24)
(2.) MIRAAJ: - (ascension of the Holy prophet(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) to heavens):
'Mi'raaj' took place in Makkah.This wonderful event occurred a year before the migration of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) from Makkah to Madina. Hazrat Jibrail(A.S.) came at night, met the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) and led him to 'Masjid-ul-Aqsa' in Jerusalem on Buraq (the horse-like animal). The Messenger (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah Ta'ala met some of the Prophets(A.S.) there and led the prayer. Thereafter Hazrat Jibrail(A.S.) led the Prophet(sallallaahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Islam to ascend to different layers of the heaven where he met some of the exalted Prophets and observed Heaven and Hell.After that the Holy Prophet (sallallaahu alaiyhi wassallam) went up and up and got access to Allah, the Almighty, who blessed him, issued some guidance and five times 'namaz' (prayer) was made obligatory. After that he descended to Jerusalem and came back to Makkah safe and sound.
The Holy Qur'an mentions it in the following words:
"Glory be to Him who made His servant go by night from the sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque whose precincts We have blessed, that We might show him (some) of Our signs. He is the Hearer, the Seer'. (Q. 17: 1).
(3.) SPLITTING OF THE MOON:
Once the disbelievers of Mak'kah asked the Messenger of Allah to prove his prophethood by showing them any sign regarding it. The Holy Prophet (sallallaahu alaiyhi wassallam) pointed out his finger towards moon and it splitted up into two pieces.
The Holy Qur'an mentions it as under:
"The Hour (of Judgement) is drawing near, and the moon is cleft in two. Yet when they see a sign (the disbelievers) turn their backs and say: 'Strong magic!" (Q. 54:1)
However, the disbelievers rejected the event as magic.